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Category: Relevant Research

National Indigenous Economic Strategy for Canada 2022: Pathways to Socioeconomic Parity for Indigenous Peoples

Summary: This National Indigenous Economic Strategy for Canada is the blueprint to achieve the meaningful engagement and inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in the Canadian economy. It has been initiated and developed by a coalition of national Indigenous organizations and experts in the field of economic development. The Strategy is supported by four Strategic Pathways: People, Lands, Infrastructure, and Finance. Each pathway is further defined by a vision that describes the desired outcomes for the actions and results of individual Strategic Statements. The Calls to Economic Prosperity recommend specific actions to achieve the outcomes described in the Strategic Statements.

This document is not intended as a strategic plan specifically, but rather a strategy that others can incorporate into their own strategic plans. In developing this Strategy, we built upon the many reports and research findings that have identified concrete recommendations and solutions to realize the vast potential of Indigenous economies. It is our hope that this strategy offers a pathway, a guide, and an opportunity for all Canadians to share our vision for economic equality and be part of this important effort. Across Canada, progressive leadership along with vibrant Indigenous businesses and entrepreneurs are strengthening communities, contributing to regional economies, supporting self-determination, and leading economic reconciliation. This represents a vast future potential that could be realized in more communities if the right conditions were in place—inclusive of all Indigenous Peoples.

The Report included findings and recommendations relating to Nation rebuilding, recognition of an Indigenous order of government, creation of an Indigenous Parliament, expansion of the Indigenous land base, recognition of Métis self-government and rights, and new initiatives to address social, education, and housing needs. The Report also dedicated significant attention to the goal of developing a viable economic base for Indigenous Peoples.

How Residential Schools led to Intergenerational Trauma in the Canadian Indigenous Population to Influence Parenting Styles and Family Structures over Generations

Source: Canadian Journal of Family and Youth Vol. 12 No. 2 (2020): Special Issue

Summary: This paper intends to address current trauma among the Indigenous Canadian population due to the assimilationist goals of residential schools that influence parenting styles and the family structure. Other areas covered in this paper include parenting issues that the Indigenous community encounters every day. Additionally, social problems are examined in terms of intergenerational trauma and discussed further in terms of their influence and effect on the family structure of Indigenous communities in Canada. For example, education, health inequalities, and intimate partner violence are discussed. These issues are interrelated because of the detrimental and marginalized effect that residential schools have on survivors and generations to follow. Possible solutions to terminating family issues in the Indigenous community are by implementing specific methods that reflect the Indigenous way of life.

Career Resources

Source: SOI Foundation

Summary: SOI has led more than 35 expeditions to the Arctic, Antarctic and places in between. Each incredible journey raised the bar on our mission to engage youth, further their knowledge of the Polar Regions, increase diversity among our participants, and encourage cross-cultural collaboration to support a healthy and sustainable future.

Our vision for the future builds on SOI’s success in experiential learning and youth engagement to now develop new programs that include land-based, community-based, and virtual learning opportunities. Additionally, SOI is broadening its support of youth beyond experiential learning to offer new opportunities and resources for mentorship, professional development and community service. As always, our goal is to inspire and foster sustainability leadership throughout every phase of SOI’s educational and professional development programs.

What Works. The Work Program: CORE ISSUES 5

Source: Australian Government, Department of Education, Science and Training

Summary: Student Engagement: Attendance, Participation and Belonging 

Three of these four terms — engagement, attendance, and participation — have a high profile in discussions of improving educational outcomes for Indigenous students. They sometimes have indistinct boundaries with attendance being used as a synonym for participation for example, and engagement ranging in people’s minds from meaning concentrated effort in the classroom to a description of very broad types of involvement.

At ground level, participation probably means things like joining in a sports carnival or providing an item at a concert, whereas from a technical perspective it is often related to grade retention and suspension statistics. Belonging brings a different flavour to the discussion and is included here for reasons explained overleaf. But taken together they provide a description of how we want our students to be — immersed constructively and enthusiastically in the developmental experiences and products that schooling provides.

First Nation Education Transformation

Source: Government of Canada

Summary: Respecting the principle of First Nations control of First Nations education, First Nations, and organizations designated by First Nations, are responsible for managing and delivering education programs and services for students who are ordinarily living on reserve. Indigenous Services Canada (ISC) provides funding for students who ordinarily live on reserve, are 4 to 21 years of age, and are enrolled in and attending an eligible elementary or secondary program.

Indigenous Education

Source: People for Education

Summary: Schools across Ontario have been working hard to support Indigenous education initiatives, with some impressive results. However, there is still work to be done.

Ontario has a lot to be proud of in terms of Indigenous education. For the past four years, People for Education has been asking schools about the Indigenous education opportunities they provide. Over that time period, there has been a significant increase in the percentage of schools reporting that they offer Indigenous education opportunities such as cultural support programs, guest speakers, or professional development for teachers.

In particular, the results from our 2018 Ontario School Survey show a notable increase in schools offering professional development and bringing in Indigenous guest speakers. In their survey responses, principals also pointed to a range of initiatives to support student learning and share Indigenous knowledge and perspectives, including Indigenous Studies courses, land acknowledgements, Orange Shirt Day, medicine gardens, and Indigenous language programs.

While the survey results show substantial progress in Indigenous education, there are also areas for continued work and improvement.

Analyzing Assessment Practices for Indigenous Students

Source: Frontiers in Education, Jane P. Preston & Tim R. Claypool

Summary: The purpose of this article is to review common assessment practices for Indigenous students. We start by presenting positionalities – our personal and professional background identities. Then we explain common terms associated with Indigeneity and Indigenous and Western worldviews. We describe the meaning of document analysis, the chosen qualitative research design, and we explicate the delimitations and limitations of the paper. The review of the literature revealed four main themes. First, assessment is subjugated by a Western worldview. Next, many linguistic assessment practices disadvantage Indigenous students, and language-specific and culture-laden standardized tests are often discriminatory. Last, there is a pervasive focus on cognitive assessment. We discuss how to improve assessment for Indigenous students. For example, school divisions and educators need quality professional development and knowledge about hands-on assessment, multiple intelligences, and Western versus Indigenous assessment inconsistencies. Within the past 20 years, assessment tactics for Indigenous students has remained, more or less, the same. We end with a short discussion addressing this point.

Indigenous Ways of Learning, Being and Teaching: Implications for New Teachers to First Nations Schools

Source: H. Colleen Marchant, University of BC

Summary: As First Nations communities in British Columbia take control over the education of their children, it is important for teachers to understand some of the distinctions and nuances of the culture particular to First Nations schools and communities. This project attempts to provide some of that information. Three sources of information provide important cultural knowledge for teachers new to First Nations schools. Interviews with five respected principals and five respected educators, of First Nations schools in British Columbia, provide the first source of knowledge. Personal and significant cultural experiences, obtained over seven years teaching in First Nations schools, provide the second source. Finally, a literature review, depicting aspects of Indigenous cultures, important for new teachers to understand, provides the third source.

Supporting Success for Indigenous Students

Source: OECD – Directorate for Education and Skills

Summary: Indigenous Peoples around the world are diverse, within and across nations. At the same time, Indigenous children have not generally had access to the same quality of education that other children in their country enjoy. This situation arises, in part, because school leaders and teachers have not always been effectively prepared to teach Indigenous students, nor are they necessarily provided with resources to help them develop their capabilities and confidence.

Some teachers and schools are successfully supporting Indigenous students. Indigenous students report feeling supported when the people at their schools:  Care about them and who they are as Indigenous People; Expect them to succeed in education; and, Help them to learn about their cultures, histories and languages.

OECD research indicates several ways that teachers can make a big difference in supporting success for Indigenous students: Extra support for students: Finding ways to change the experiences of individual students goes a long way. Engaging families: Mutually respectful relationships between schools and parents can have significant benefits for students. Monitoring and reporting: Tracking progress with data helps educators and families understand where progress is being made.

Principals and other school leaders can make all the difference in supporting teachers and promoting success for Indigenous students. In addition, school systems can strengthen the efforts of teachers and principals by focusing on early learning: High quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) for Indigenous children sets them on an early pathway for success.

Indigenous values in education benefit everyone

Source: University of Victoria

Focus: Teachers and administrators

Summary: Education is key to creating social change. This research explores how education can build relationships among Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities if Indigenous values are included in schools. Knowing that many non-Indigenous teachers may need guidance and support when starting to include Indigenous values, the researchers make connections with other teaching methods being adopted in schools and show how Indigenous values can benefit everyone.

This research explores Indigenous values in education and how they can benefit all students. The authors point out that recent innovations in education are methods rooted in Indigenous communities for generations. Incorporating Indigenous values into school spaces can make education relevant to Indigenous students and give non-Indigenous students opportunities to learn about Indigenous history and culture through an Indigenous perspective.

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