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Issue #92
July, 2017

Aboriginal Education in Quebec: A Benchmarking Exercise

Source: C.D. Howe Institute, John Richards

Summary: In Quebec, the Aboriginal high-school dropout rate for the age 20-24 cohort is 43 percent, 28 points higher than for non-Aboriginals. What can be done?

Quebec Aboriginal poverty is as severe as elsewhere in Canada. And in terms of education, Quebec Aboriginal outcomes are somewhat worse than comparable Canadian Aboriginal results, themselves a very low benchmark. This Commentary examines the relationship between these troubling benchmarks – education levels and employment earnings – for Quebec Aboriginals, comparing outcomes within the province’s various Aboriginal identity groups and with the rest of Canada.

What Matters in Indigenous Education: Implementing a Vision Committed to Holism, Diversity and Engagement

Source: Measuring What Matters.  A People for Education Project. Pamela Rose Toulouse PhD

Summary: What Matters in Indigenous Education: Indigenous peoples’ experience with education in Canada has been a contentious one. The focus from the outset of imposed, colonial-based education has centred on assimilation and/or segregation of Indigenous peoples from their communities and worldviews. This report from People for Education explores an Indigenous approach to quality learning environments and relevant competencies/skills. It focuses on select work from People for Education and draws out the research, concepts and themes that align with Indigenous determinants of educational success. This paper also expands on this work by offering perspectives and insights that are Indigenous and authentic in nature.

School Outcomes among Elementary School-Aged Inuit Children in Inuit Nunangat

Source: Aboriginal Policy Studies, University of Alberta. ARubab G. Arim, Benita Tam, Evelyne Bougie, Dafna E. Kohen. Vol 5, No 2 (2016), pp. 32-59.

Summary: The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with school outcomes among elementary school-aged Inuit children in Inuit Nunangat through a socio-ecological framework. The associations among children’s school outcomes and various individual, family, and school factors were examined using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Logistic regression analyses suggest that an Inuk child who is healthy and not hungry, whose parents obtained a post-secondary education, who is attending a school with a climate conducive to learning and at which parents are given opportunities to be involved, and who is exposed daily to the Inuit language has better odds of succeeding at school.

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Source: Our Legacy

Summary: This site contains material relating to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples, found in Saskatchewan cultural and heritage collections.

mamātāwi-āpacihcikan ita nānatohk kayas ohci masinahikanis mīna āsay kā-osihcikātēki masinahikanisa aya ohci nistam-iyiniwak, iskipowak, mīna āpihtawi-kosisānak, kā-miskikātēki ita kisiskāciwanihk.

Our site name was given to us by a Cree researcher at the University of Saskatchewan Archives, who in turn was influenced by the late Chief Mary Ann Stoney, Little Pine First Nation. Chief Stoney was known for her commitment to Cree language curriculum development. Although we recognize the numerous Indigenous languages spoken in Saskatchewan and across Canada, we have included Cree to honour this gift and Dene to honour our northern partners, Pahkisimon Nuye?áh Library System (Northern Saskatchewan Archives).

[A note about language used on this site]

Existing titles have been transcribed verbatim. Some terms may therefore be considered offensive. They have been retained to accurately provide evidence of the time they were created.

This site is a co-operative initiative among several of Saskatchewan’s publicly-accessible archives. It is primarily intended to increase the information normally available for archival material by providing access to descriptions of material at a file or item level. Where appropriate, some guides (finding aids) are also available. Although less comprehensive, the site also includes some published (library) and artifactual (museum) material. Please note that materials have been digitized based on consideration of known copyright, privacy, and particularly, cultural concerns.

This site is in progress. We hope future additions will eventually provide researchers with the capability to access information concerning all relevant archival resources available in Saskatchewan’s publicly-accessible collections.

Founded in Culture: Strategies to Promote Early Learning among First Nations Children in Ontario

Source: Best Start Resource Centre. (2010). Founded in Culture: Strategies to Promote Early Learning in First Nations Children in Ontario. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Focus: First Nations parents/caregivers/child care workers

Summary: The purpose of this First Nations early learning report is to:

  • review early learning policy and research that has been done with First Nations children (from birth to age 6) living in Ontario; and
  • identify strategies to support early learning for service providers who work with First Nations parents/caregivers. The review involved a scan of relevant literature and interviews with key informants.

Early learning is important because it forms the foundation for lifelong learning. Taking part in early learning programs has been shown to positively influence school success. The following key concepts and strategies emerged from the review:

  • How to define early learning
  • Aboriginal learning styles
  • Culture-based early learning and positive self-identity

Key informants identified 10 main strategies that they found successful in supporting early learning among Aboriginal children. Key informants also provided helpful suggestions to address those strategies. The 10 strategies are outlined below and discussed in more detail in the Key Informant Survey section of this report.

  1. Understanding Aboriginal history, culture, and social contexts
  2. Creating a welcoming environment
  3. Building a relationship with parents and families and extended families
  4. Understanding Aboriginal history, culture, and social contexts
  5. Working from strengths
  6. Encouraging learning at home and extending learning into the child’s whole environment
  7. Linking to community
  8. Respecting the diversity of cultures
  9. Supporting children with special needs
  10. Learning from and about the land

Legacy of Hope Foundation: Education resources

Focus: Secondary students

Summary: The Legacy of Hope Foundation (LHF) has many bilingual resources available to educators, students, and researchers. They range from a DVD focusing on various aspects of residential schools to a full curriculum package consisting of six complete lesson plans with resources. The LHF specializes in creating curriculum on the history and legacies of the Residential School System. Our materials present the general history of the System in 100 Years of Loss, and also explore the specific experiences of Inuit and Métis students.

100 Years of Loss: The Residential School System in Canada

This bilingual program is designed to support educators and administrators in raising awareness and teaching about the history and legacy of residential schools – effectively providing practical tools that can be implemented in classrooms. These products come in response to demands from educators for complete in-class resources, and serve as an entry point to both the subject matter and to existing resources currently available at

Information resources are available to download.

Aboriginal Healing Foundation Research Publications:

With the completion of the Aboriginal Healing Foundation’s mandate in 2014, the LHF became the heir to the AHF’s extensive library of research and publications. A complete inventory of these resources can be found at

Teach About Water

Source: The Sacred Relationship
Focus: Grade 5/6 Social Studies and Science

Summary: The Sacred Relationship brings Aboriginal worldview right into your classroom and community. Download easy-to-teach lesson plans based on series of fifteen educational videos. The videos feature perspectives on water from Aboriginal Elders, leaders and Western Scientists.

Grade 5 Science – Wetland Eco-Systems

  • Eleven Lesson Plans
  • Six Online Videos

Grade 5 Social Studies – Histories and Stories of Ways of Life in Canada

  • Four Lesson Plans
  • Four Online Videos

Grade 6 Science – Evidence and Investigation

  • Three Lesson Plans
  • Three Online Videos

Grade 6 Social Studies – Citizens Participating in Decision Making

  • One Lesson Plan
  • One Online Video

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